The vine has been present in Australia since the beginning of the 1800s, so its arrival is relatively recent and it probably comes from South Africa. The vines are substantially those already widespread internationally; in fact, there is no news of native vines. Despite this, in a short time Australian winemakers and their wines have come to occupy a prominent place in the world. In the last 30 years, the previous mediocre production has given way to quality. Curiously, Australia produces more wine than it consumes internally and exports to more receptive markets, such as the United States, are close to the level of European producers. One of the main factors in the success of Australian wines is their excellent value for money. In fact, the development of Australian enology has been among the fastest and most efficient in the world; the secret is probably due to the adoption, right from the start, of avant-garde oenological technologies and practices, which has allowed a rapid development and allowed to reach a high level of quality. Wine production is concentrated in the southern part of the country, particularly in the states of New South Wales , Victoria and South Australia , the most important and productive area in the country. Both white and red wines are produced, as well as a fair amount of sparkling wines and liqueur wines. The most cultivated white grapes in Australia are Chardonnay , Riesling and Semillon , while the black berried ones are Cabernet Sauvignon and Syrah (which in Australia and South Africa is called Shiraz ), Grenache , Merlot and Pinot Black .